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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

TV series episode or webisode

In-text citation

 (Writer & Director, Year)

Writer and Director (Year)

(Karmel & Perkins, 2019)

Karmel and Perkins (2019)

Reference list

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [TV series episode]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of series. Production Company.

Karmel, P. (Writer), & Perkins, R. (Director). (2019, October 27). (Season 1, Episode 3) [TV series episode]. In R. Griffiths, K. Martin, & S. Riley (Executive Producers), Total Control. Blackfella Films; ABC Studios.

Frost, M. & Lynch, D. (Writers), & Dunham, D. (Director). (1990, April 12). Traces to Nowhere (Season 1, Episode 2) [TV series episode]. In M. Frost & D. Lynch (Executive Producers), Twin Peaks. Lynch/Frost Productions; Propaganda Film; Spelling Television; Twin Peaks Productions.

Radio / TV interview

In-text citation

(Interviewee, Year)

Interviewee (Year)

(Patel, 2016)

Patel (2016)

Reference list

Interviewee. I. I. (Year, Month Day of program). Title of the interview [Interview]. Title of program. Studio or archive name; https://xxxxx

Patel, D. (2016, December 21). Dev Patel discusses the new film and Indian identity [Interview]. Radio National; ABC.

Ted Talk

Note: If the TED Talk is found on YouTube, use the owner of the YouTube account as the author to aid in retrieval (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 344).

In-text citation

(Speaker, Year)

Speaker (Year)

(Bierut, 2019)

Bierut (2019)

(TED, 2012)

TED (2012)

Reference list

Speaker, S. S. (Year, Month Day). Title. [Video]. TED Conferences. https://xxxxx

Bierut, M. (2017, March). How to design a library that makes kids want to read [Video]. TED Conferences.

TED. (2012, March 16). Brené Brown: Listening to shame [Video]. YouTube.

Television / Radio - Program

Note: If the series is ongoing, use the word 'present' in place of the second year (American Psychological Association, 2020).

In-text citation

(Executive Producers, Year-Year)

Executive Producers (Year-Year)

(Gupta & Plowman, 2001-2003).

 Gupta and Plowman (2001-2003)

Reference list

Producer, P. P. (Executive Producers). (Year). Title [TV series]. Publisher.

Gupta, A., & Plowman, J. (Executive Producers). (2001-2003). The office [TV series]. Capital United Nations Entertainment & The Identity Company.

Television / Radio - Advertisement

In-text citation

(Producer, Year)

(Beyondblue, 2009)

Reference list

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year, Month Day of broadcast). Title of work [Television/Radio advertisement]. Location: Studio.

Beyondblue. (Producer). (2009). Beyondblue: Anxiety [Television advertisement]. Canberra, Australia: WIN TV.

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