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Referencing (TAFE)

More help with

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)


Note: if the publisher is the same as the author, do not include the publisher (American Psychological Association, 2020).

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2019)

Reference List

Author, A. A. (Year). Report Title. https://xxxxxx

Author, A. A. (Year). Report Title. Publisher.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2019). Australia’s welfare 2019: Data insights. (Australia’s welfare series no. 14). (Cat. no. AUS 226).

Wilson, R. D. (1997). Bringing them home: Report of the national inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission.


Organisational or governmental report with authors

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Fried & Polyakova, 2018)

Fried and Polyakova (2018)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title. Organisation/Government agency. https://xxxxxx

Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council.

Industry Report eg IBISWorld

Note: As the IBISWorld database contains unique content and is updated regularly, include the URL.

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Vuong, 2019)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title. Publisher. Retrieved Month Day, Year from htttps://xxxxx.

Vuong, B. (2019, May). IBISWorld Industry Report H4511B. Cafes and coffee shops in Australia. IBISWorld. Retrieved December 17, 2019 from

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