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Referencing (TAFE)

More help with

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.

example

Journal

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx. https://doi.org/xxxxx

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111. https://dx.doi.org/10.11645/13.2.2619

Ebook

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
 
Approximate Date or estimated date
Example
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

Web site

  • A web document (not a journal article) will often be a Word or PDF file, available from a website or webpage.
  • Use the year of publication, or if the document undergoes regular changes, use the year it was last updated in.
  • Use n.d. (no date) where no publication date is available.
  • Where no author is available, use the name of the organisation.

For in-text citations for a website where no reference is being made to a specific document, use the following format: Name of website (https://xxxxx

When citing an entire web site it is sufficient to cite the address in the text. No entry is needed in the reference list.

e.g. Lifeline crisis support, suicide prevention (http://www.lifeline.org.au/) is a website supporting ...

If the contents of the page are regularly updated, record the date you retrieved the information from in the website’s reference list entry with in this format: Retrieved Month Day, Year from https://xxxxx (American Psychological Society, 2020).

Document on the Web site

In-text citation

(Author, Date of publication)

(Queensland Health, 2019)

Author (Date of publication)

Queensland Health (2019)

Reference list

Note: If the author and the web site have the same name, exclude the site name. If not, note the website’s name after the title of the webpage. Include all the information available about the date the document was published.

Author, A. A. (Date of publication e.g. 2018, August 6). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxx

Author. A. A. (Date of publication e.g. 2018, August 6). Title of work. Site Name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from https://xxxxx

Office of the Chief Psychiatrist. (2019, September). Chief Psychiatrist Annual Report 2018-19. Queensland Health. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0030/888051/Chief-Psychiatrists-Report-2018-19_FINAL.pdf

Queensland Health. (2019, October 31). Disaster and emergency incident plan. Retrieved November 25, 2019, from https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0031/628267/disaster-emergency-incident-plan.pdf

Web page

Note: If the author and the web site have the same name, exclude the site name.

 

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Rodriguez, 2019)

Rodriguez (2019)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site name. https://xxxxx

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxx

Rodriguez, C. (2019, November 24). Nature photographer of the year: Inspirational 2019 winning images. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/ceciliarodriguez/2019/11/24/nature-photographer-of-the-year-the--inspirational-2019-winning-images/#5eef6a712c43

Queensland Health. (2016, July 26). Introducing complementary foods. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/clinical-practice/guidelines-procedures/clinical-staff/maternity/nutrition/infants/complementary

Web page, organisational or government author

Note: If the author and the web site have the same name, exclude the site name.

 

In-text citation

(Name of organisation, Year)

Name of organisation (Year)

(Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2019)

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2019)

Reference list

Note: If the author and the web site have the same name, exclude the site name.

Name of Organisation. (Year of publication, Month Day). Title of web page. https://xxxxx

Name of Organisation. (Year of publication, Month Day). Title of web page. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. (n.d.). Freedom of Information. https://www.csiro.au/en/About/Access-to-information/Freedom-of-Information

Australian Government. (n.d.). Agricultural and Forestry Scientists. JobOutlook. https://joboutlook.gov.au/Occupation?search=Industry&Industry=A&code=2341

In the following example, the retrieval date is included as the content is subject to change:

Queensland Health. (2019, October 31). Disaster and emergency incident planRetrieved November 25, 2019, from https://www.publications.qld.gov.au/dataset/queensland-health-disaster-management-plans/resource/949066d8-8215-44c7-b8b6-e7b00cbd6e02

Web page with no author

In-text citation

Use the beginning of the title of the web page as the author.

(Australian Psychological Society, 2010)

Reference list

Name of organisation in full. (Year of publication). Title of work. http://xxx

OR

Title of page or document. (Year of publication). http://xxx

Australian Psychological Society. (2010). Bushfire resources: Psychological preparedness and recovery
        http://www.psychology.org.au/bushfires/

A pedagogy of listening. (2011). http://reggioaustralia.org.au/component/content/article/59 

Web page no date

Use "n.d." instead of year - meaning no date available on web page.

Note: If the author and the web site have the same name, exclude the site name.

In-text citation

(Author, n.d.)

Author (n.d.)

(Tourism and Events Queensland, n.d.)

Tourism and Events Queensland. (n.d.)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work. Site name. https://xxxxx

Tourism and Events Queensland. (n.d.) Thargomindah. https://www.queensland.com/en-au/destination-information/thargomindah

Webpage on a news website

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Groves, 2019)

Groves (2019)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxx

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title. Site name. Retrieved Month, Day, Year, from https://xxxx

Groves, M. (2019, November 24). Is this the last generation of opal miners? ABC News. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-24/last-generation-of-opal-miners/11538542

In the following example, the retrieval date is included as the content is subject to change:

Leggett, T. (2019, November 26). Audi to cut 9,500 jobs to fund electric car push. BBC News. Retrieved November 26, 2019 from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50563254

 

Press release

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Screen Australia, 2019)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title [Press release]. https://xxxxx

Screen Australia. (2019, June 12). Screen Australia and Vidcon Australia announce Pitcher Perfect [Press release]. https://www.screenaustralia.gov.au/sa/media-centre/news/2019/06-12-pitcher-perfect-announced

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