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Referencing (TAFE)

Harvard Referencing Style 2020

This guide offers advice on how to use the Harvard referencing style, which is an author-date referencing style.

The author-date systems uses:

  • author and date in-text.
  • a list of full details in the reference list

The in-text citation briefly tells the reader where the information referenced comes from. The citation within the text includes the author's last name or corporate name and the year of publication. All in-text citations must have a corresponding reference list entry

Please refer to the In-text Citation section of this guide for more information.

The reference list comes at the end of the essay on a new page and provides the reader with the full details of all sources cited in-text. The reference list includes all details such as author's last name and first name initials, publication year, the title of the resource, and publication details like publisher or URL.

Please refer to the Reference List section of this guide for more information.

This guide has been created for the TAFE Queensland community using authoritative style manuals and associated web sites. These resources are listed on the Referencing Resources tab of this Guide. Please remember this is only a guide.

Considerable effort has been applied to ensure that the examples in this Guide comply to the guidelines set out in these style manuals, however the manuals are open to interpretation. Please send any feedback or corrections to Ask a Librarian.


Meaning about or approximately

See also: Publication details - dates



Of a book or report

See also: Book - Chapter in an edited book


Digital Object Identifier

A combination of letters and numbers to help identify electronic resources.

See also: DOI 

ed, eds


If a book includes editors rather than authors.

See also: Edited book



For second and later edition of a book, not the first edition.

See also: Book - Later Editions

et al.

Meaning "and others" derived from Latin

Used for works by 3 or more authors in-text citation.

See also: Three or more authors

fig., figs.


For images, tables and graphs.

See also: Tables and graphs

ill., ills.


For illustrated works.

See also: Artwork


No date

For sources that do not have a date of publication, use ‘n.d.’ in lieu of the year.

See also: Publication details - dates



No abbreviations should be used.

See also: Publication details - page numbers



No abbreviations should be used.

See also: Direct quotes - paragraph numbers


Revised edition

Used in end-text referencing when item is identified as being a revised edition.

See also: Book - Later Editions



For translated works.

See also: Translated book

vol, vols


For journal articles.

See also: Journal - Electronic


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