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Referencing (TAFE)

Harvard Referencing style 2020 Introduction

This guide offers advice on how to use Harvard referencing style, which is an author-date referencing style. The Harvard style used by TAFE library is based on the Australian Government's Style Manual 2020 edition referred to as the style manual in this guide. The  updated  version of the Style manual  is available online. 

The new Style manual 2020 edition contains a number of major changes for citing and referencing compared to the previous edition (2002), these include:

  • In the reference list, parentheses () are used to separate the year, 
  • The word "and" is used to separate the authors and not "&"
  • Page numbers are only included for direct quotes, not for paraphrases and summaries. 
  • The style manual suggests to hyperlink the title for online works, it is highly recommended that you use the URL rather than hyperlinking the title.

The main reasons for providing referencing in our work is that we acknowledge the sources used and give readers information if they need to find the sources for themselves. 

To improve this guide we welcome feedback and comments on this new guide

Harvard Referencing style 2020

The author- date systems uses:

  • author and date in-text
  • a list of full details later

 similarly, all reference list entries should have corresponding in-text citations.

The in-text citation briefly tells the reader where the reference comes from. The citation with in the text include the author's last name and year of publication. All in-text citations must have a corresponding reference list entry

The reference list placed alphabetically at the end of the essay provides the reader with the full details of all sources cited in-text. The reference list includes all the details such as author's last name and the first name initials, publication year, the title, and publication details. More information on the reference list is included in the following pages of this guide. 


If you are citing texts, images video or sound, you must properly attribute all the copyright materials in your reference.



Digital Transformation Agency (2021) ‘Author–date’, Australian Government Style Manual,, accessed 17 May 2021.

Sample Essay

According to researchers Walker (1967) and Novakov (2009) present perfect tense for ESL learners is one of the most troublesome tense in the English verb system (Mullen 1997). Celce-Murica and Larsen-Freeman (1999:115) states that “present perfect tense is used retrospectively to refer to a time prior to now”. Novakov (2009:281) further explains the complexity of this finite verb tense by stating that “its specific temporal structure (situation starting in the past, continuing to the point of speech and after it)” makes it difficult for ESL learners to comprehend. Hence there is a greater need to develop a clearer understanding of the semantic features of verbs and types of present perfect tense in English. This can be achieved by applying the three inter acting dimensions of grammar. Larsen- Freeman’s (2003) and Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999) suggest that the framework of three dimensions consist of: Form or structure (how meaning is formed); Meaning or semantics (what is the meaning) and Use or Pragmatics (when or why is this used) (Mullen 1997:34).

Novakov (2009) states that present perfect tense is divided into four basic types which are related to some semantic features of verbs. Kung (2013) describes present perfect tense as

having multiple functions to express meaning. Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999:116) further divided present perfect as the following:

    1. “A situation that began at a prior point in time and continuous into the present

    1. An action occurring or not occurring at an unspecified prior time that has current relevance
    2. A very recently completed action (often with just)

    1. An action that occurred over a prior time period and that is completed at the moment of speaking
    2. With verbs in subordinate clauses of time or condition”


Mullen (1997) highlights that most textbooks lack clarity in the rules concerning present perfect tense. Thus, language teachers are challenged to use creative and innovative methods to teach grammar (Widodo 2006:139). Gass et al. (2013) suggest that ESL instruction has three sources of input: teacher, materials and other learners. Many methodologies have been introduced to ESL classrooms and textbooks, however, the most commonly used method employed is the communicative approach (Mullen 1997).

Communicative Language Teaching is defined as the “theoretical perspective of the communicative approaches by making communicative competence the goal of language teaching” (Larsen-Freeman 2000:121). Galloway (as citied in Krashen 2008:181-182) further clarifies that Communicative Language Teaching allows teachers to create scenarios of real life situations that the students might encounter. The research by Swain (1984) suggested that some type of focus on grammatical forms was necessary if learners were to develop high levels of accuracy in L2 language, thus communicative language teaching by itself was found inadequate (Nassaji  and Fotos 2004).

The Task Based Instruction uses communicative tasks but is interpreted to have primary focus on meaning (Nassaji and Fotos 2004). Nunan (1989 as citied in Nassaji and Fotos 2004) defined communicative tasks as “a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language. Larson- Freeman (2000:144) explains that this approach aims to provide learners with a natural context for language, through the use of communicative activities (Nassaji and Fotos 2004).

Even though structure based and comprehension task introduces grammar structure implicitly in communicative contexts, consciousness-raising tasks require learners to communicate with each other, about target grammar structures thus the grammar forms are the task content (Fotos and Ellis as citied in Nassaji and Fotos 2004).



Celce-Murcia M, Larsen-Freeman D and Williams, HA (1999) The grammar book: an ESL/EFL teacher's course, 2nd edn, Heinle & Heinle, Boston.

Gass SM, Behney J and Plonsky L (2013) Second language acquisition: an introductory course, 4th edn, Routledge, New York.

Krashen S (2008) ‘Language education: Past, present and future’, RELC Journal, 39(2):178-187, doi: 10.11.77/0033688208092183.

Larsen-Freeman D (2000) Teaching and principles in language teaching, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Larsen-Freeman D (2003) ‘The Three Dimensions’ In D. Larsen-Freeman (ed.), Teaching language: from grammar to grammaring, 34 – 48, Heinle, Boston, USA.

Mullen,A (1997) Context-based instruction of the present perfect tense in English second language classrooms, Dissertations & Theses, accessed 20 December 2016 tid=13380

Nassaji H and Fotos S (2004) ‘Current developments in research on the teaching of grammar’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24:126-145, accessed 10 December 2016, tid=13380

Novakov P (2009) ‘Semantic Features of Verbs and Types of Present Perfect in English.’ Paper presented at the 18th International Symposium on Theoretical & Applied Linguistics, Thessaloniki, Greece, May 4-6.


Walker RH (1967) ‘Teaching the Present Perfect Tenses’, TESOL Quarterly, 1(4):17– 30, accessed 16 December 2016,

Widodo H (2006) ‘Approaches and procedures for teaching grammar’, English Teaching, 5(1): 121,

accessed 15 December 2016, tid=13380


circa (about, approximately)



For the choreographer of a dance performance for example

Guerin (chor.2010) incorporated the diverse art forms and physicality of human body






For director of recorded and live performance

Geoffrey Rush did an excellent performance in Kings speech (Hooper dir. 2010)


Digital object identifier

 It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. For example

Ewert D (2014) 'Content-learning tasks for adult ESL learners: promoting literacy for work or school', TESOL Journal, vol. 5, no. 2: 265-287, doi :10.1002/tesj.119

ed, eds


 When a book includes editors rather than authors

  For example: Robinson DN (ed. 1992) Social discourse and moral judgment, Academic Press, San Diego.



For second and later edition of a book, not the first edition

For example Drugs and life, 4th edn

et al.

and others (from Latin et al.)

Used for works by 3 or more authors in-text citation

For example a work by Malinowski, Larsen, Ngu and Fairweather
... (Malinowski et al. 2007).
Malinowski et al. (2007) have found.

fig, figs



in the same place (from Latin ibidem)

ill, ills





No date

 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation
 (Southey n.d.)

 End-text reference
 Southey R (n.d.). The life of Nelson, Blackie, London.


No page numbers
 For example:
 Mathews' use of.(2010  n.p.).
 NOTE: Instructions for electronic sources without page numbers
 If page numbers are not given use approximate page number  (3 of 9); or paragraph number for short text (para 2); or the heading is given in the source for the particular section. For example:

 The ABS (2004: para 1 of 4) defines residents as 'economic entities (persons, organisations or enterprises) which have a closer association with the territory of Australia than with any other territory'.
 Flitton (2012: para 1) reports 'Australia is about to confront the biting reality of US military decline'.

p, pp



These are included in the in-text citation. 

 For example:

 According to Gibbs (2009: 34-35)

 (Ezzy 2002: 30)

para, paras

Paragraph (s)

 For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number.

 For example:

 (Clarkson 2001: para 2)


Revised edition

 Used in end-text referencing when item is identified as being a revised edition

 For example:

 Referencing guide (14th rev. edn).





 Name the translator or editor only in the end-text reference, immediately following the title. In the case of translated works, cite the title in its translated form, not in its original form.

 For example:

 In-text citation
 (Genet 1966: 61)

 End-text reference
 Genet, J (1966) The balcony (2nd edn), trans B. Frechtman, Faber, London, England.

vol, vols


 Include in end text referencing if books include volume information

 For example:

 Shearer T ( 2013) 'Getting the mix right: assistants in nursing and skill mix', Australian Nursing & Midwifery Journal, 21(5): 24-27, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 March 2017.


Digital Transformation Agency (2021) ‘Author–date’, Australian Government Style Manual,, accessed 17 May 2021.

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