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Referencing (TAFE)

More help with

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Journal of Information Literacy13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

Government Document

APA Citation Style does not have a separate category for government publications. According to APA, government documents can be considered books, technical or research reports or brochures.

Helpful tips:

  • Treat a government document as a book, report, or brochure.
  • If a person is named on the title page, use that person as author.
  • If no person is named, use the government agency, department, or branch as a group author.
  • Give the name of the group author exactly as it appears on the title page.
  • If the parent agency does not appear in the author name it should appear in the source element as the publisher. 
  • If there are several levels of agency include the most senior or parent body first in authorial source elements.
  • If there is a series or report number, include it after the title.
  • Use a description of work after title in square brackets if not a book, article or report.  

In-text citation

Note: Use a page number when quoting directly 

Author Surname OR Name of Government Organization (Year, page number)

(Author, Year) OR (Name of Government Organization, Year)

(Gilmore et al., 1999, p. 5) 

Gilmore et al. (1999)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication).Title of report (Report number). Publisher.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication).Title of work [Description]. Publisher. http://xxxxx

Government agency. (Year of publication).Title of work [Description]. Publisher.

Office of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner. (1996). Indigenous Deaths in Custody 1989 - 1996. Australian Human Rights Commission.

Swain, S. (2014). History of Australian inquiries reviewing institutions providing care for children [Research report]. The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

Coroners Report

In-text citation

(Corporate Author, Year)

The inquest into the death of Shane Paul Krog (Queensland Courts, 2012) found that the death was ...

Reference List

Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of work (Report number). Publisher if different from author. htttps//:xxxxx

Queensland Courts. (2012). Inquest into the death of Shane Paul Krog (File No. COR 2006/61).

Australian Bureau of Statistics

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2016)

Second and subsequent citations (ABS, 2016)

Note: Leave out the publisher if the author and the publisher are the same.

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of publication (Number of report). Publisher.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of publication (Number of report). http://xxx

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2016). ABS Geospatial web services user guide (cat no. 1470.0).

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Employment in renewable energy activities, Australia, 2015-2016. (no. 4631.0).

Australian Standards

In-text citation

(Author, Year of publication)

(Standards Australia, 2015)

Note: If publisher and author are the same, omit publisher from reference element.

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Standard name (standard number) [Standard]. htttps//:xxxxx

Standards Australia. (2003). Slide fasteners (AS 2332-2003) [Standard].

Standards Australia. (2015). Methods of sampling and testing mortar for masonry constructions (AS 2701-2001) [Standard].

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