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Referencing (TAFE)

More help with

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pages.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, Lenker, Cox & Kocevar-Weidinger. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.



Use the same format for both print Books and eBooks.

  • Include a DOI if available.
  • Don't include the database name or URL unless it is the only source the book is available.
  • Include the edition information for the 2nd and subsequent editions after the title and in brackets.
  • For direct quoting a ClinicalKey book refer to ClincalKey Books examples.

In text

(Author, Year)

(Brown, 2018)

(Dynes, 2017)

(Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017)


Author (Year)

Brown (2018)

Dynes (2017)

Regional Office for South-East Asia (2017)


Direct quote: (Author, Year, p. x)

(Brown, 2018, p. 10)

(Dynes, 2017, p. 23)

(Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2017, p. 5.)


Reference List

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Dynes, R. (2017). Positive communication: Activities to reduce isolation and improve the wellbeing of older adults. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


Only available at URL 

Regional Office for South-East Asia. (2017). Pocket book of hospital care for mothers. World Health Organisation.



One Author

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Cole, 2010)

Author (Year)

The conclusion reached in a recent study (Gimenez, 2011) was that ...

Direct quote: (Author, Year, p. x)

"…organisations create visions" (Cole, 2010, p. 102).

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Cole, K. (2010). Management: Theory and practice. Pearson Education Australia.

Gimenez, J. (2011). Writing for nursing and midwifery students (2nd ed.). Palgrave MacMillian.


Two Authors

In-text citation

(Author & Author, Year)

(Samson & Daft, 2021)

Author and Author (Year)

Samson and Daft (2011) argue that ...

Direct quote: (Author, Year, p. x)

“Goal setting starts with top managers” (Samson & Daft, 2011, p. 57).

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Samson, D., & Daft, R. (2011). Fundamentals of management. Thomson.


Three (3) to Twenty (20) authors

In-text citation

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus ‘et al.’ in every citation.

(Author et al., Year)

(Collis et al., 2012)

Author et al. (Year)

Collis et al. (2012)

Direct quote: (Author, Year, p. x)

“The end of the financial year is a key time for business accounting” (Collis et al., 2012).

Reference list

For a work that has up to and including 20 authors, use the ampersand (&) between the last 2 names in the list.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Collis, J., Holt, A., & Hussey, R. (2012). Business accounting: An introduction to financial and management accounting. Palgrave Macmillan.


Corporate Authors/Organisations

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are spelled out each time they are cited.

  • If the name is long and the abbreviation is well known, you may use the abbreviation in second (and additional) citations.
  • The full name is used in the reference list. Include sufficient information about the organisation to make it readily identifiable e.g. Australia, Department of Health.

In-text citation

The full corporate author is written out in the first citation.

If the abbreviation of the corporate author is familiar or readily understandable then it can be entered after the corporate author in the first occurrence and used in subsequent occurrences.

(Corporate author, Year)

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], 2016)

(AIHW, 2016)

Corporate author (Year)

National Fire Protection Association (2009)

Direct quote: (Author, Year, p. x)

“It is important to be prepared as the fire season can start earlier than expected some years” (National Fire Protection Association, 2009, p. 5).

Reference List

If the corporate author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher information.

Corporate author, different publisher

Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

National Fire Protection Association. (2009). Fundamentals of fire fighting skills (2nd ed.). Jones and Bartlett.

Corporate author same as publisher

Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of work.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Australia's health 2016 (AIHW cat. no. AUS 199).

Edited Book

In-text citation

If possible cite the authors of the part of the edited work that you are using. If not, use Ed./Eds. after the editors' names to indicate they are editors in the reference list only.

(Editor, Year)

(Gold, 1999)

(Ransley & Ingram, 2011)

Editor (Year)

Gold (1999)

Ransley and Ingram (2011)

Reference list

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Gold, M. (Ed.). (1999). A Kurt Lewin reader: The complete social scientist. American Psychological Association.

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Ransley, J., & Ingram, H. (Eds.). (2011). Developing hospitality properties and facilities. Butterworth-Heinmann. 

Translated Book

If known, supply the original date of the work and the date of the translation.

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Piaget, 1969)

If the original date is known

(Author, Original Year/Translation Year)

(LaPlace, 1814/1951)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Translation Year). Title (Translator Name, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year).

Piaget, J. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.). Basic Books.

LaPlace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Author quoted in another work (Secondary sources)

In the text, name the original source and give the citation for the secondary source. Only give the secondary source in the reference list.

In-text citation

Primary author (as cited in Secondary Author, Year, page number)

Mandela (as cited in Burnett, 2010, p. 625)

Reference list

List only the secondary source (i.e. author/editor of the book read)

Secondary Author. (Year). Title of Secondary Work. Publisher

Burnett, A. (Ed.). (2010). Chambers book of speeches. Chambers.

Two items by the same author

Write the order of entries chronologically in the reference list.

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Kearns, 2010)

(Kearns, 2014)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (1st Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2nd Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Kearns, K. (2010). The big picture (2nd ed.). Pearson Australia.

Kearns, K. (2014). The business of child care (3rd ed.). Cengage Learning Australia.

Two Authors with the same family name

If a reference list includes publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname include first authors' initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication is different.

In-text citation

Initials of the first author and second author (Year)

Among studies, we review M. A. Light and Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Light, I. (2006). Deflecting immigration: Networks, markets, and regulation in Los Angeles. Russell Sage Foundation.

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographical expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for the local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8, 73-82.

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