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Referencing (TAFE)

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General guidelines

To cite a Twitter feed or Facebook page as a whole or to discuss it in general, it is sufficient to give the site URL in text, inside round brackets. There is no need for a reference list entry.

If you want to add the entry in your reference list then cite a specific post use the format below.

To cite social media and forum posts in text, use the poster’s name and the year as you would for other references. However, make sure the user knows it’s a social media post (Digital Transformation Agency 2020).

In-text citation

Rule: (Username or Group Name Year)

In a recent Facebook post, Services Australia (2020) ...

(Services Australia 2020)

Rule: Username or Group Name (Year:para. x)

(Services Australia 2020:para. 2)


Reference list

Rule: Name of Page or Poster (Day Month Year) ‘Title or first 10 words of content of post ...’ [type of post], Page of Post, accessed Day Month Year, URL

International Foundation for Art (1 March 2021) 'The Man Ray Trust has issued a Notice demanding Christie's...' [Facebook status], International Foundation for Art, accessed 1 June 2021,

Services Australia (31 January 2020) ‘Our mobile servicing arrangements will continue in NSW, VIC ...’ [Facebook status], Services Australia, accessed 1 February 2020,

In-text citation

To cite social media and forum posts in text, use the poster’s name and the year as you would for other references. However, make sure the user knows it’s a social media post.

Rule: (Name of page or poster) or Name of page or poster (Year)

(Architecture Digest 2020) or Architecture Digest (2020)

Rule: Name of page or poster (year)  

In a Tweet, Architecture Digest (2020) said the portraits... 


Reference list

Rule: Name of Page or Poster (Day Month Year) ‘Title or first 10 words of content of post ...’ [type of post], Page of Post, accessed Day Month Year, URL

Architecture Digest (22 May 2021) 'The two long-lost portraits had been covered up by plaster...' [Tweet], Architecture Digest, accessed 1 June 2021,

Williams MA (9 December 2020) 'Congratulations to the Magic Lab & South Western Sydney Local' [Tweet], Mary-Anne Williams, accessed 1 June 2021,


More help with

One Author

In-text citation  

Rule: (Author Year) or Author (Year

 (Cole 2019) or Cole (2019)

Reference list

Rule: Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.

Cole K (2019) Leadership & Management: theory and practice, 7th edn, Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest.

Gimenez J (2011) Writing for nursing and midwifery students, 2nd edn, Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke.

Two (2) authors

In-text citation

List all authors in every citation: use 'and' instead of '&'

Rule: (Author and  Author Year: page number)

'Goal setting starts with top managers' (Samson and Daft 2011:57)

OR Author and Author (Year: page number)...

Samson and Daft (2011:57) argues that top managers set the goals for their institute and departments.

Reference list

Rule: Author AA and Author BB (Year)  Title of work: subtitle, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.

Samson D and Daft R (2011) Fundamentals of management, Thomson, South Melbourne, Victoria.


Three (3) or More Authors

In-text citation

For a work by 3 or more authors, use the first author’s name plus the Latin term ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘and others’). Don’t use italics for ‘et al.’. All authors’ names are included in the reference list.

Rule: (Author et al. Year)

Rule: Author et al. (Year)

(Weygandt et al. 2012)

Weygandt et al. (2012)

Reference List

Rule: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC and Author, DD (Year)  Title of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication .

Weygandt JJ, Kimmel PD, Kieso DE and Mladenovic-McAlpine R (2012) Accounting: building business skills, 4th ednJohn Wiley, Milton Qld.

Corporate Authors/ Organisations

For in-text citations, use the abbreviation of an organisations' name when that organisation is the author.

In-text citation

Rule: (Abbreviation of the organisation's name year)  or Abbreviation of the organisation's name (year)

(DFAT 2020)  or DFAT (2020)

Reference list

In the reference list, write the abbreviation first followed by the full name of the organisation in brackets. When citing web pages, the author and the publisher are often the same. To avoid repetition of long names, use the shortened form for the name of the website after the title. 

Rule: Abbreviation of the organisation (full name of the organisation) (Year) Title, [format], Publisher, accessed date DDMMYYYY, URL

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Australia - Singapore digital economy agreement: fact sheet [online document], DFAT, accessed 16 June 2021, 


Edited Book

In-text citation

Rule: Editor (ed Year) or (Editor ed Year)

Gold (ed 1999) or (Gold ed 1999)

Reference List

Rule: Editor E (ed) (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.

Gold M (ed) (1999) A Kurt Lewin reader: the complete social scientist, American Psychological Association, Washington.

Ransley J and Ingram H (eds) (2011) Developing hospitality properties and facilities, Butterworth-Heinmann, Oxford.

Author and Editor

In-text citation

Refer only to the author in the in-text, refer to both in the reference list.

Rule: (Author Year) or Author (Year)

(Foucault 2003)

or Foucault (2003)

Reference list

Rule: Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book (Editor E ed), Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.

Foucault M (2003) Abnormal: lectures at the Collège de France (Marchetti W and Salomoni A ed), Picador, New York.

Translated Book

If known, supply the original date of the work and the date of the translation.

In-text citation

Rule: (Author year) or Author (year)

(Piaget 1969)  or Piaget (1969)

If the original date is known

Rule: (Author Original Year/Translation Year)

(LaPlace 1814/1951)

Reference list

Rule: Author A (Year) English title of book: subtitle of book (Translator T trans), Name of Publisher, Place of Publication.

Piaget J (1969) The psychology of the child (Weaver H trans), Basic Books, New York.

LaPlace P (1951) A philosophical essay on probabilities (Truscott FW and Emory FL trans), Dover, New York.  

Author quoted in another work (secondary sources)

 In the text, name the original source and give the citation for the secondary source. Only give the secondary source in the reference list. This means you are citing a source that you have not directly read but has been quoted in another work which you have read. In this example, you have read Burnett, who is citing Mandela but you have not read Mandela directly. You would like to cite Mandela.

In-text citation

Rule: Primary author (as cited in Secondary Author Year, page number)

Mandela (as cited in Burnett 2010: 625)

Reference list

List only the secondary source (i.e. author/editor of the book read)

Rule: Secondary Author AA (Year) Title of Secondary Work, Publisher, Location.

Burnett A (ed 2010) Chambers book of speeches, Chambers, Edinburgh.

Two items by the same author

If you have multiple works by the same author, list them in date order in the reference list.

In-text citation

Rule: (Author Year) or Author (Year)

Reference list

Rule: Author AA (1st Year of publication) Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Rule: Author AA (2nd Year of publication) Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Kearns K (2010) The big picture, 2nd edn, Pearson, Frenchs Forest.

Kearns K (2014) The business of child care, 3rd edn, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne.

Two or more Authors with same family name

If a reference list includes publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname, include first author's initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication is different.

In-text citation

 Rule: Initials of the first author and second author (Year)

Among studies, we reviewed MA Light and Light 2008 and I Light 2006 ...

Reference list

Rule: Author AA  and Author, BB (Year of publication) Title of work, Publisher, Location.

Light I (2006) Deflecting immigration: networks, markets, and regulation in Los Angeles, Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Light MA and Light IH (2008) 'The geographical expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for the local law enforcement' Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8:73-82.

Digital Object identifiers (DOI)

The style manual states that a DOI is a series of numbers and punctuation that identifies a document. Unlike a URL, a DOI always stays the same. DOIs are also internationally standardisedWorks that have DOIs include most journal articles, some e-books and some PDFs.If the document has a DOI, include it in the citation in the reference list. Put it at the end of the citation and include the shortened form ‘doi’ in lower case before it.


Rule: Author AA (Year of publication)' Title of article', Title of Journal, volume no (issue no.):page nos. xx-xx, doi: xxx

Ewert D (2014) 'Content-learning tasks for adult ESL learners: promoting literacy for work or school', TESOL Journal, 5 (2):265-287, doi :10.1002/tesj.119


Rule: Author A (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, doi:number

Paul W and Sharma CP (2015) Advances in wound healing materials: science and skin engineering, Smithers Rapra, doi: 10.15347/wjm/2014.008. 5

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year.

No date

 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

 Rule: (Author n.d.) or Author (n.d.)
(Southey n.d.) or Southey (n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey R (n.d), The life of Nelson, Blackie, London, England.

Approximate date or estimated date

In text citation

Rule: (Author c. Year)

Rule: (Author Year?)

For example:

Southey (c.1977)

(Southey 1977?)

Page Numbers

The Style manual states that page numbers should be included in text citation only if the work has page numbers and you are using 'direct quotes' from another person's work. You may also want to add page numbers to paraphrases and summaries in some circumstances or desired. 

When including page numbers in your intext citations use a colon between the date and the page number or range of page numbers. 

Book Print 

Rule : (Author Year:page no) or Author (Year:page no.)


Single page citation:  'Many studies exist which focus on some of the individual elements of the learner journey' (Pittaway 2019:4).

Using author as part of the sentence: Pittaway (2019:4) states that ' Many studies exist which focus on some of the individual elements of the learner journey'. 

Using a range of pages for citation:  (Pittaway 2019:20-25)


Rule : (Author Year: para no) or Author (Year: paragraph no.)

Single page citation:  ' Australian funds will support WFP'  (DFAT 2021:3).

Using author as part of the sentence: The DFAT (20121:para 3) states that ' Australian funds will support WFP'.

Using a range of pages for citation:  (DFAT 2021:4-7)

Direct quote 40 words or more

Display the quote in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks. Start the block quotation on a new line and indent the block about 1 cm or half inch from the left margin. At the end of a block cite the quoted source or alternatively if the quote source is mentioned in beginning of the sentence then only the page or paragraph numbers are needed at the end.

According to Gimenez (2011:48-49) critical thinking is being able to reflect on your practice is an important part of the broader process of becoming a critical thinker. Being a good critical thinker means that you can assess the arguments presented by other people to see if they are logical, well thought out, and properly supported with relevant evidence. It is an ability that you can use when you read as well as when you listen to someone presenting a point of view or proposing an action .

Using Quotes

The style manual  specifies the use of single quotation marks ('quote') for direct quotes.

Reference Used

Australian Government (2021) Style Manual, accessed 24 May 2021,

Monash University (2021) Citing and referencing,  accessed 22 June 2021


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