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Referencing (TAFE)

More help with

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

Journal - Electronic

In-text citation quotation

(Author, Year, p. x)

(McNeill, 1998, p. 21)

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(McNeill, 1998)

McNeill (1998)


Reference list entry

Note: Do not include database information or the URL if an article is from a database (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 317). Academic database information is now left out as works are widely available (American Psychological Association, 2019, para. 5). The exception to this are databases with ‘original, proprietary content’ such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and monographs published in ERIC (American Psychological Association, 2019, para. 14; American Psychological Association, 2020).

To find more on Digital Object Identifier (DOI) please go to the DOI information page

Journal article from database without DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pages.

McNeill, W. (1998). Care for the self: Ordinary ethics in Heidegger and Foucault. Philosophy Today42(1), 53-64.

Journal article from the Web

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pages. https://xxxxx or

Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33-34.

Peckham, M. (2017, June 11). Minecraft is getting an update that will change everything. Time, 189(23).       

Journal without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL

Ahman, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching researching: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39.


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