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Referencing (TAFE)

Digital Object Identifier

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers to help identify electronic resources. The DOI is assigned when an article is published and made available electronically. If your resource has a DOI, it is recommended to use it when referencing.

The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.


In-text citation

Rule: (Author Year) 

(Penner 2013)

Rule: (Author Year:page number or paragraph number).

(Penner 2013:5)


Reference list

With DOI

Rule: Author AA (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, doi:number.

Paul W and Sharma CP (2015) Advances in wound healing materials: science and skin engineering, Smithers Rapra, doi:10.15347/wjm/2014.008.5.


Without DOI

Rule: Author AA (Year) Title of book: subtitle of book, Name of Publisher, Place of Publication, accessed date, URL.

Dentato MP (2018) Social work practice with the LGBTQ community: the intersection of history, health, mental health, and policy factors, Oxford University Press, New York, accessed 18 June 2021,

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