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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.
It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx. https://doi.org/xxxxx
Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111. https://dx.doi.org/10.11645/13.2.2619
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi
Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000
( Author, n.d.)
(Author, Year, p. x)
(Islam, 2007, p. 254)
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [Format]. Publisher.
Islam, Y. 2007. The little black songbook: Cat Stevens [Songbook]. Wise Publications.
(Davis & Akst, 1978)
(Picker & McClatchy, 1995)
Reprint of an old score, do not include the information about the original publishing company. Include the original publication date and copyright date:
Composer, A. A. (Year). Title of work [Format]. Publisher.
Davis, B., & Akst, H. (2001). Baby face [Sheet music]. Hal Leonard Europe. (Original work published 1928).
Haydn, F. J. (2001). The creation [Sheet music]. Random House. (Original work published 1798).
Picker, T. (Composer), & McClatchy, J. D. (Librettist). (1995). Emmeline: An opera in two acts [Score and parts]. Schott Helicon.
Note: It isn’t necessary to include how you listened to the music. Include a URL if that is the only way to listen to the music (e.g. it is only available on SoundCloud or an artist’s website) (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 345).
If the recording was not made by the original artist, include additional information about who recorded it and when the original work was published.
Artist. (Year). Album title [Album]. Producer.
Bach, J. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)
Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.
Single song or track
Note: If the song has no associated album, leave out that information (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 345).
Artist. (Year). Song title [Song]. On Album. Producing company/companies.
Beethoven, L. van (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804).
Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.