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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Journal of Information Literacy13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)


In-text citation

(Author, Year, p. x)

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Islam, 2007, p. 254)

(Islam, 2007)

Islam (2007)


Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [Format]. Publisher.

Islam, Y. 2007. The little black songbook: Cat Stevens [Songbook]. Wise Publications.

Sheet music

In-text citation

(Composer, Year)

(Davis & Akst, 1978)

(Picker & McClatchy, 1995)

Reprint of an old score, do not include the information about the original publishing company. Include the original publication date and copyright date:

(Haydn, 1798/2001)

Reference list

Composer, A. A. (Year). Title of work [Format]. Publisher.

Davis, B., & Akst, H. (2001). Baby face [Sheet music]. Hal Leonard Europe. (Original work published 1928).

Haydn, F. J. (2001). The creation [Sheet music]. Random House. (Original work published 1798).

Picker, T. (Composer), & McClatchy, J. D. (Librettist). (1995). Emmeline: An opera in two acts [Score and parts]. Schott Helicon.

Recorded Music

Note: It isn’t necessary to include how you listened to the music. Include a URL if that is the only way to listen to the music (e.g. it is only available on SoundCloud or an artist’s website) (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 345).

If the recording was not made by the original artist, include additional information about who recorded it and when the original work was published.

Music album

In-text citation

(Artist, Year)

Artist (Year)

(Bach, 1721/2010)

(Bowie, 2016)

Bach (1721/2010)

Bowie (2016)

Reference list

Artist. (Year). Album title [Album]. Producer.

Bach, J. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.


Single song or track

Note: If the song has no associated album, leave out that information (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 345).

In-text citation

(Artist, Year)

Artist (Year)

(Beethoven, 1804/2012)

Beethoven (1804/2012)

Reference list

Artist. (Year). Song title [Song]. On Album. Producing company/companies.

Beethoven, L. van (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804).

Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

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