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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

Film / DVD / Videorecording


In-text citation

(Director/Producer, Year of release)

Director/Producer (Year of release)

(Ashton & McAuliff, 2019; Davidson, 1999; Hooper, 2010)

Ashton & McAuliff (2019), Davidson (1999), Hooper (2010)

Reference List

Director B. B. (Director). (Year of release). Title of movie [Format e.g. Motion picture or DVD]. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Ashton, Y., & McAuliff M. (Producers). (2010). Catering skills: Behind the scenes [Film]. Educational Media Australia.

Davidson, J. (Director). (1999). B. F. Skinner: A fresh appraisal [Film]. Davidson Films.

De Heer, R. (Director). (2006). Ten canoes [Film]. Vertigo Productions.

Streaming Video

Streaming videos

In-text citation

(Artist/Producer, Year of release)

Artist/Producer (Year of release)

(Geis et al., 2019)

Geis et al. (2019)

Reference List

Director B. B. (Director). (Year of release). Title of movie [Film: Format e.g. streaming video or DVD]. https://xxxxx

Geis, K., Rideout, R., & Jhally, S. (Directors). (2013). Feeding Frenzy [Film: streaming video].

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