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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019).  Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)


In-text citation

(Author, Year of publication)

Author (Year of publication)

(Butterfield & Szymanski, 2018)

Butterfield and Szymanski (2018)

Reference list - print

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of dictionary. Publisher.

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of work. Title of series, Number in series. Publisher.

Butterfield, A., & Szymanski, J. (Eds.). (2012). A dictionary of electronics and electrical engineering. Oxford University Press.

Healy, J. (Ed.). (2011). The Harvard dictionary of music (4th ed.). Belknap Press.

Entry from a dictionary

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Entry name. In Title of dictionary (ed., p. x). 

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Entry name. In Title of dictionary. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxx

American Psychological Association. (2015). Mood induction. In APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed., p. 667).

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Climate change. In dictionary. Retrieved December 13, 2019, from

A whole dictionary

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of dictionary. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxx

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). dictionary. Retrieved August 6, 2019, from


In-text citation

Author Known 

(Author,Year, page. x) or  Author (Year, p. x)

(Hansen,1998, p. 106)

Hansen (1998, p. 106) describes catharsis ...

Author unknown

(Title of the encyclopedia, Year of publication, p. x)

The definition of acer is ' group of over 115 related species' (The Hutchinson encyclopedia, 2005, p. 4)

Reference list

Author known

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Article name. In A. A. Editor (ed.), Title of the work (vol., pp.). Publisher. 

Hansen, F. (1998). Catharsis. In R. J. Corsini & A. J. Auerbach (Eds.), Concise encyclopedia of psychology (2nd ed.). John Wiley

Author unknown

Title of work. (Year of publication). Publisher.

The Hutchinson encyclopedia. (2005). (Rev. ed.). Hodder Arnold.

Retrieved online   

Entry from an encyclopedia 

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Entry name. In Title of encyclopedia. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxx

Jackson, S. T. (2018). Climate change. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved December 13, 2019 from


Article in a guide

In-text citation

(Article name, Year, p. x)

(Ergotamine, 2010, p.10)

Reference list

Article name. (Year of publication). In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (edition). (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

Ergotamine. (2010). In A. Tiziani (Ed.), Harvard's nursing guide to drugs (8th ed.). (pp. 296-297).  Elsevier.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Article name. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (Vol.). doi:xxx

OR if there is no author/editor:

Product name. (Year, Month). In Database name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxx

Abisart. (2019, November). In MIMS Online. Retrieved November 12, 2019, from Info&searchKeyword=Abisart&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=127880001_2

MIMS Online has a last updated date therefore the date of last updating is included after the product name. The date retrieved needs to be included when information is regularly updated.

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