What is a DOI?
A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique combination of numbers and letters that identifies a document and provides a link to its location.
DOIs may be written in different ways. The recommended format is https://doi.org xxxxxxxx
Example: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014. If a DOI is written differently, change it to this format.
How do I find the DOI?
A DOI is generally located on the first page of an article or eBook.
How do I use a DOI in a reference?
The DOI is the last piece of information of a reference entry as shown in the example below:
Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychology Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000
Include a DOI for all works that have one, regardless of whether you have used the print or online version.
Hyperlinks should be live to lead the reader straight to the content. Do not use a full stop after a DOI or URL as it may interfere with link functionality.
What if there is no DOI?
If a work from a website has a URL and no DOI, include the URL.
If a work from an academic database has no DOI, do not include a URL or database information. Reference as for a print work.
Location of Digital Identifier (DOI) in Journal Article
Özdemir-Yilmazer, M., & Örsdemir, E. (2017). Further questioning oral communication strategy instruction from a different perspective: Is implicit learning possible? Cukurova University Faculty Of Education Journal, 46(2), 289-297. doi:10.14812/cuefd.273785
Location of DOI for Article on Database Landing Page
dos Santos Nogueira de Góes, F., Del' Angelo Aredes, N., Yuri Nakata Hara, C., Monti Fonseca, L. M., & Campbell, S. H. (2017). Simulation with standardized patients: Nursing student's communication skills in health. Revista Da Rede De Enfermagem Do Nordeste, 18(3), 383-389. https://doi: 10.15253/2175-6783.2017000300014