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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

Published Thesis

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Kerr, 2011)

Kerr (2011)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation (Publication Number if available) [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name/Archive Name. https://xxxxx

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis [Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name/Archive Name. https://xxxxx

Culpin, S. (2018). Effects of long-term participation in tennis on cognitive function in elderly individuals [Masters thesis, Edith Cowan University].

Kerr, L. A. (2011). The educational production of students at risk [Masters thesis, University of Toronto]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Hutcheson, V. H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master’s thesis, The College of William & Mary]. William and Mary Digital Archive.

Unpublished Thesis

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Imber, 2003)

Reference list 

Author, A. A. (Year of completion). Title of dissertation [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

Author, A. A. (Year of completion). Title of thesis [Unpublished Master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

Imber, A. (2003). Applicant reactions to graduate recruitment and selection (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation.) Monash University.

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