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Referencing (TAFE)

In-text Citation

An in-text citation uses the author's surname and the year of publication. You can use two formats:

  • Author's surname as part of the sentence and year in parentheses straight after the author

           Rule : Author (year)

Always include date of publication in parentheses

Example: Jones (2019) highlighted global warming is a real threat to small island nations

  • Author's surname and date of publication in parentheses

            Rule: (Author Year)

Don't separate the name and date with a comma


The global warming and rising seas is a real threat to small island nations (Jones 2019)              

In-text references contain the following information in this order:

  • the surname (family name) of the author/authors or name of the source (organisation, government department, etc)
  • the year of publication of the text or website (found at the bottom of the page, look for the copyright symbol © in the source)
  • the page number/s of the text, usually for direct quotations, particular ideas and concepts for example (Smith 2010: 55)
  • page numbers are not normally included when paraphrasing but may be included if desired
  • if quoting or citing a source which has been cited within another document, mention the original source together with the secondary reference details, for example: (Smith 2008, as cited in Jones 2010) 
  • if your citation is at the end of a sentence, ensure the full stop is placed after the reference
  • for two or more author citations use the word 'and'  both inside and outside the parentheses, “Brown and Black (2010) indicated that…” or It was reported that there was significance increase in the results (Brown and Black 2010).Do not use '&' example (Brown & Black 2010)

    Note: In-text citations should be presented in a clear, accurate and consistent style throughout a document                                                                            

Page Numbers

The Style manual states page numbers should be included in your in-text citation only if the work has page numbers and you are using 'direct quotes' from another person's work. You may also want to add page numbers to paraphrases and summaries in some circumstances or as desired. 

When including page numbers in your in-text citations use a colon between the date and the page number or range of page numbers. 

Book Print 

Rule: (Author Year:page no) or Author (Year:page no.)


Single page citation:  'Many studies exist which focus on some of the individual elements of the learner journey' (Pittaway 2019:4).

Using author as part of the sentence: Pittaway (2019:4) states 'Many studies exist which focus on some of the individual elements of the learner journey'. 

Using a range of pages for citation:  (Pittaway 2019:20-25)


Rule : (Author Year: para no) or Author (Year: paragraph no.)

Single page citation:  ' Australian funds will support WFP'  (DFAT 2021:3).

Using author as part of the sentence: The DFAT (20121:3) states ' Australian funds will support WFP'.

Using a range of pages for citation:  (DFAT 2021:4-7)

Direct quote 40 words or more

Display the quote in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks. Start the block quotation on a new line and indent the block about 1cm or half inch from the left margin. At the end of a block, cite the quoted source or alternatively if the quote source is mentioned at the beginning of the sentence, then only the page or paragraph numbers are needed at the end of the quote.

According to Gimenez (2011:48-49) critical thinking is being able to reflect on your practice is an important part of the broader process of becoming a critical thinker. Being a good critical thinker means that you can assess the arguments presented by other people to see if they are logical, well thought out, and properly supported with relevant evidence. It is an ability that you can use when you read as well as when you listen to someone presenting a point of view or proposing an action .

Using Quotes

The style manual  specifies the use of single quotation marks ('quote') for direct quotes.


One author

The family name of the author and the year of publication, with no punctuation between the two items.

 Rule: (Author Year) OR Author (Year)


Technology trends are changing business communication (O'Brien 2019).

O'Brien (2019) states advancement technology trends are changing business communication.                                                                                                                                                               


Two (2) authors

For two authors include both names in the in-text citation. 

The style manual specifies to use the word 'and' to separate the authors Do not use the ampersand symbol '&'.

Rule: (Author and Author Year)  or Author and Author (Year)

Example :

The findings had similar results (Blake and Smith 2019).

Blake and Smith (2019) reported similar results.

Three or more authors

For a work by 3 or more authors, use the first authors' family name and use  'et. al' (Latin term meaning, and others) in all citations. Do not use italics for 'et. al.' List all of the authors in the reference list.

Rule: First Author et al. (Year) or (First Author et al. Year)

Example :

William et al. (2017) reported climate projections reveal global mean surface warming increasing with cumulative carbon emissions.

Climate projections reveal global mean surface warming with cumulative carbon emissions (William et al. 2017)


Multiple works in one citation

You can cite more than one work in the same in-text citation, separate them using semicolons. Use one parentheses to enclose all citations.

 When citing more than one source at the same point in your writing:

• order the sources by date

• separate each source with a semicolon

• order each source by date from earliest to most recent •

If sources have the same date of publication, order them alphabetically by author name.

Rule: (Author Year; Author Year; Author Year)


Planning a new library space requires knowing how people interact with collections, information technology and the services they need ( Homlgren and Spencer 2014; McDonald 2016;Smith 2016;William 2019)

Organisation as author

Where an organisation is listed as the author, especially in government and industry publications, use the name of the organisation as the author. The style manual suggests to use abbreviations for in-text citations. 

Note: in the reference list use the same abbreviation followed by the full name of the organisation in parentheses.

Rule: (Abbreviation of Organisation year) or abbreviation of Organisation (year)


Australia is committed to advancing human rights globally (DFAT 2020)

DFAT (2020) reported that Australia is committed human rights globally.

No author

If the work does not list an author, use the name of the organisation, blog, website, newspaper, journals etc.

If the above options are not available, use the first ten words of the title.

Note: make sure your in-text citation matches the reference list. In the reference list any article beginning with -  a, an or the, disregard when determining the alphabetical order.  

Rule: (title of work year) OR  title of work in italics (year)


Environmental issues are playing an increasing important role in the textile industry (Sustainable textiles 2016)

According to Sustainable textiles (2019) environmental issues are playing an increasing important role in the textile industries.

No date of publication

If there is no date for the works use the term n.d., which means no date in place of year of publication.

Rule: Author (n.d.) OR (Author n.d.)


Smith and Blake (n.d.) reported that the results from previous investigations were identical.

The previous investigations reported by other researchers had identical results (Smith and Blake n.d.).

Always consider the currency of information; n.d., may not be suitable.

Multiple works by same author (Published in different years)

When referring to more than one work by the same author, arrange the citation in ascending chronological order by date of publication, separate the dates by a comma. Use a semicolon to separate a page reference from the date following it, as shown in the third example.

 Rule: (Author Year A, Year B) or Author (Year A, Year B)


The trade deals between Australia and India has been successful (DFAT 2015, 2020).

DFAT (2015, 2020) commented on trade between Australia and India.

The trade deals between Australia and India has ben successful (DFAT 2015, 2020;4).

If a writer has been the sole author for some references and the lead author for others, list the works in order of:

  • the alphabetical order of the secondary authors
  • the date of publication.


Adams A (n.d.)

Adams A (2019a) …

Adams A (2019b) …

Adams A, Brown B and Zinger Z (2009) …

Adams B (2017) …

Adams B and Black B (2011) …

Adams B and Zinger Z (2010) …

Adams W, Zinger Z, Black B and Brown B (2013a) …

Adams W, Zinger Z, Black B and Brown B (2013b) …

From Style Manual

Multiple works by same author AND same year

If there is more than one reference by an author in the same year, put a lower case letter after the date of each citations and use these letters in the reference list as well. 

Rule : (Author yeara... (Author yearb)  OR Author (yeara) ...Author (yearb)


Brown (2019a) explained the effects of colour combination. A colour system reveals its strength through its versatility of application (Brown 2019b).

Citing multiple authors with the same surname

The style manual does not specify how to address this, we would suggest that you add extra identifying information so that readers can identify different readers.

Example: A Black (2019) reported that ...,whereas as S Black (2015) commented that .....


Citing specific parts of a source

For a direct quote, the page number(s) must be given. Indicate page, chapter, figure, table,  etc. as specifically as possible. Use accepted abbreviations, i.e. ch for chapter, para. for paragraph, do not use p for page.


As  Beevers (2018:5) describes salt intake has direct effect on blood pressure.

"Salt intake has a consistent and direct effect on blood pressure" (Beevers 2019:5). 

In pathophysiology of hypertension, cardiac output is usually normal in hypertension (Beevers 2019: ch 3)

Digital Transformation agency(2020:para1) states that author date system includes details of author and date.

It is highly recommended secondary sources should only be used if you are unable to find the original source. When you can, cite the original sources to ensure you are not using another person's interpretation. If you must use a secondary citation, use this format 

For in-text citations of the work of one author as cited in another author's work provide both authors' names

Rule : AuthorA (Year as citied in AuthorB) OR (AuthorA  Year as citied in AuthorB Year )


...Fenner (2005 as citied in Laiveniece 2016)

... (Fenner 2005 as citied in Lavieniece 2016)

In the reference list provide the details of the author of the source that you have actually used. In the above example it will be Lavieniece 2016. 

Emails and personal communication 

All personal communication such as conversations and emails can be included in your assignment. Include these sources only as an in-text citation and do not include these sources in reference list. State these as personal communication with full date.


(John Smith, personal communication, 25 March 2020)


Editor or translator in place of an author

When there is no personal author and the creator of the source is an editor use the editor's name in the in-text citation with abbreviation ed. or eds if there is more than one editor.

For translated works use the original author's name in the in-text citation


(Singh ed. 1998)

edited by Singh (1998)

Encyclopedia and  dictionaries

Only provide in-text citation for encyclopedias and dictionaries, do not include citation in reference list


The online Macquarie dictionary (2021) defines cruller as "a small ring -shaped or twisted sweet, deep fried cake".

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