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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)


If there is no title on an item, e.g. photo from the web, create a title and enter it in square brackets in place of the title (American Psychological Association, 2020, pp. 346-347).

[dog running on the beach]

The following instructions show you how to cite but not reproduce images. To reproduce an image, you may need to get permission. Use the in text citation when you are citing the image in the body of your work, and the reference list entry for your reference list at the end. 


If you can't find who created an image on a site like Pintrest, try doing a reverse image search to see other pages where an image has been published. This may give you more information. This page demonstrates how to do a reverse image search


Clip art or stock image

Note: You don’t need to reference clip art that is part of programs like Microsoft Word or PowerPoint. If you can’t find a title for the image, use a description in square brackets instead.

In text citation

(Creator, Year)

Creator (Year)

(Johnson, 2018)

Johnson (2018)

Reference list

Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of image in italics and sentence case [Clip art/Stock image]. Publisher. http://xxxxx

Johnson, G. D. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.



Note: The source is the name of the website the photograph was retrieved from (American Psychological Association, 2020).

In-text citation

(Creator, Year)

Creator (Year)

(McCurry, 1985)

McCurry (1985)

Reference list

Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of image in italics and sentence case [Photograph]. Publisher. http://xxxxx

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

Rinaldi, J. (2016). [Photograph series of a boy who finds his footing after abuse by those he trusted]. The Pulitzer Prizes.



In-text citation

(Creator, Year)

Creator (Year)

(Rossman & Palmer, 2015)

Rossman and Palmer (2015)

Reference list

Creator, A. A. (Year). Title of image in italics and sentence case [Infographic]. Publisher. http://xxxxx

Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival.

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