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Referencing (TAFE)

More help with

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

Later Editions

Some examples of editions you may have seen are:

  • 4th edition
  • Revised edition
  • 1st American edition
  • Augmented edition
  • third revised edition
  • 1st paperback edition

In-text citation

(Author, Year, p. xx) or Author (Year)

(Dossey et al., 2011, p. 135) or Parker (2006)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (x ed.). Publisher.

Burchfield, R. W. (2004). Fowler’s modern English usage (3rd rev. ed.). Oxford University Press.

Dossey, B. M., Keegan, L., & Barrere, C. (2016). Holistic nursing: A handbook for practice (7th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Parker, M. E. (2006). Nursing theories and nursing practice (2nd ed.). F. A. Davis.

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