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Referencing (TAFE)


E-books come in a variety of formats (e.g., Kindle, Adobe Digital Editions, EPub, HTML, and more) and can be read on a variety of devices (e.g., e-readers like the Kindle, Nook, and Sony Reader, as well as on personal computers and mobile devices through online portals such as NetLibrary, ebrary, and Google Books).

Do not include database information or the URL if an article is from a database (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 317). Academic database information is now left out as works are widely available (American Psychological Association, 2019, para. 5).  Do include a URL if the eBook is from a website outside of a database. 

In-text citation

For in-text citations of paraphrased material, provide the author and date.

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Penner, 2013)

Penner (2013)

Direct quotation, also provide page numbers if the e-book has page numbers.

(Author, Year, p. x).

(Penner, 2013, p. 5).

If there are no page numbers, apply the following conventions:

  • a heading or section name. If the heading is too long, abbreviate the heading and use quotation marks, for example (Centre for Human Movement, 2019, “Ways to get fit” section).
  • a paragraph number within that section. 
  • a heading or section name and a paragraph number, for example (Smith, 2015, Healthy Heart section, para. 2)

Reference list

eBook with a DOI

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

eBook without a DOI

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Dynes, R. (2017). Positive communication: Activities to reduce isolation and improve the wellbeing of older adults. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

eBook from a website 

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher if different from author. https://xxx

World Health Organisation Regional Office for South-East Asia. (2017). Pocket book of hospital care for mothers.

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