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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pages.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, Lenker, Cox & Kocevar-Weidinger. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), pp. 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey ( c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)


eBooks come in a variety of formats (e.g., Kindle, Adobe Digital Editions, EPub, HTML, and more) and can be read on a variety of devices (e.g., e-readers like the Kindle, Nook, and Sony Reader, as well as on personal computers and mobile devices through online portals such as NetLibrary, ebrary, and Google Books).

Do not include database information or the URL if an article is from a database (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 317). Academic database information is now left out as works are widely available (American Psychological Association, 2019, para. 5).  Do include a URL if the eBook is from a website outside of a database. 

In-text citation

For in-text citations of paraphrased material, provide the author and date.

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

(Penner, 2013)

Penner (2013)

Direct quotation, also provide page numbers if the e-book has page numbers.

(Author, Year, p. x).

(Penner, 2013, p. 5).

If there are no page numbers, apply the following conventions:

  • a heading or section name. If the heading is too long, abbreviate the heading and use quotation marks, for example (Centre for Human Movement, 2019, “Ways to get fit” section).
  • a paragraph number within that section. 
  • a heading or section name and a paragraph number, for example (Smith, 2015, Healthy Heart section, para. 2)

Reference list

eBook with a DOI

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

eBook without a DOI

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Dynes, R. (2017). Positive communication: Activities to reduce isolation and improve the wellbeing of older adults. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

eBook from a website 

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher if different from author. https://xxx

World Health Organisation Regional Office for South-East Asia. (2017). Pocket book of hospital care for mothers.

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