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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pp. xxx-xxx.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, T., Lenker, M., Cox, E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey (c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

Computer Program

Note: The titles of software and apps should be italicized in the reference list entry but not italicized in the text.

In-text citation

(Author or Name of group, Year of publication)

Author or Name of group (Year of publication)

(Viechtbauer et al., 2014)

Viechtbauer et al. (2019)

Reference List

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work (Version X) [Computer software]. Publisher. http://xxxx

Viechtbauer, W., Dewey, M., Henmi, M., Weiss, B., Hoeksema, J., & Cheung, M. (2019). The metaphor package: A meta-analysis package for R (Version 2.1-0) [Computer software]. The R foundation.


In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Soils, 1999)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [CD-ROM]. Publisher.

Soils. (1999). Geographica on CD ROM [CD ROM]. Random House.

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