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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available, include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pages.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, Lenker, Cox & Kocevar-Weidinger. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy, 13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approxmately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

( Author, n.d.)
 (Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author, c. Year)
( Author, Year?)
 Southey ( c. 1977)
(Southey, 1977?)

One Author

In-text citation

No direct quote

(Author, Year) or Author (Year)

The conclusion reached in a recent study (Smith, 2007) was that ......

Direct quote, fewer than 40 words

"..." (Author, Year, pp. xx-xx) or Author (Year) "..." (p. x)

Note: The quote is entered in double quotation marks

According to Cole (2010, p. 32) ......OR ".... organisations create visions" (Cole, 2010, p. 102).

Direct quote 40 words or more

Display the quote in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks. Start the block quotation on a new line and indent the block about 1 cm or half inch from the left margin. Double space the entire quotation. At the end of a block cite the quoted source or alternatively if the quote source is mentioned in beginning of the sentence than only the page or paragraph numbers are needed at the end of the quote (APA, 2010, p. 171).

According to Gimenez (2011) critical thinking is being able to reflect on your practice is an important part of the broader process of becoming a critical thinker. Being a good critical thinker means that you can assess the arguments presented by other people to see if they are logical, well thought out, and properly supported with relevant evidence. It is an ability that you can use when you read as well as when you listen to someone presenting a point of view or proposing an action (pp. 48-49).

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Cole, K. (2010). Management: Theory and practice. Pearson Education Australia.

Gimenez, J. (2011). Writing for nursing and midwifery students (2nd ed.). Palgrave MacMillian.


Two Authors

In-text citation

List both authors in every citation:

(Author & Author, Year) or Author and Author (Year)...

Goal setting starts with top managers (Samson & Daft, 2011, p. 57).

Samson and Daft (2011) argue that .........

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Samson, D., & Daft, R. (2011). Fundamentals of management. Thomson.


Three (3) to Twenty (20) authors

In-text citation – Multiple authors

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus ‘et al.’ in every citation.

(Author et al., Year)

Author et al. (Year)

(Collis et al., 2012)

Collis et al. (2012)

Reference list – Three or more authors

For a work that has up to and including 20 authors, use the ampersand (&) between the last 2 names in the list.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Collis, J., Holt, A., & Hussey, R. (2012). Business accounting: An introduction to financial and management accounting. Palgrave Macmillan.

Note: If the book has a DOI, include it in the reference list entry at the end.

Corporate Authors/Organisations

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are spelled out each time they are cited. If the name is long and the abbreviation is well known, you may use the abbreviation in second (and additional) citations. The full name is used in the reference list. Include sufficient information about the organisation to make it readily identifiable e.g Australia, Department of Health.

In-text citation

(Corporate author, Year) or Corporate author (Year)

The full corporate author is written out in the first citation. If the abbreviation of the corporate author is familiar or readily understandable then it can be entered after the corporate author in the first occurrence and used in subsequent occurrences.

(National Institute of Mental Health, (NIMH), 2003) 

Australian Bureau of Statistics, (ABS, 2016)

Subsequent uses:

(NIMH, 2003)

ABS (2016)

Reference List

If the corporate author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher information. 

Corporate author, different publisher

Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

TAFE Queensland Brisbane. (2016). TAFE Queensland Brisbane student orientation handbook 2016. TAFE Queensland.

Corporate author same as publisher

Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of work.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Australia's health 2016 (AIHW cat. no. AUS 199). 

Edited Book

In-text citation

If possible cite the authors of the part of the edited work that you are using. If not, use Ed./Eds. after the editors' names to indicate they are editors in the reference list only.

Editor (Year) or (Editor, Year)

(Gold, 1999)

Gold (1999)

Reference list

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher.

Gold, M. (Ed.). (1999). A Kurt Lewin reader: The complete social scientist. American Psychological Association.

Ransley, J., & Ingram, H. (Eds.). (2011). Developing hospitality properties and facilities. Butterworth-Heinmann. 

Translated Book

If known, supply the original date of the work and the date of the translation.

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

(Piaget, 1969)

If the original date is known

(Author, Original Year/Translation Year)

(LaPlace, 1814/1951)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Translation Year). Title (Translator Name, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year).

Piaget, J. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.). Basic Books.

LaPlace, P. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).

Author quoted in another work (Secondary sources)

In the text, name the original source and give the citation for the secondary source. Only give the secondary source in the reference list.

In-text citation

Primary author (as cited in Secondary Author, Year, page number)

Mandela (as cited in Burnett, 2010, p. 625)

Reference list

List only the secondary source (i.e. author/editor of the book read)

Secondary Author. (Year). Title of Secondary Work. Publisher

Burnett, A. (Ed.). (2010). Chambers book of speeches. Chambers.

Two items by the same author

Write the order of entries chronologically in the reference list.

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (1st Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2nd Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Kearns, K. (2010). The big picture (2nd ed.). Pearson Australia.

Kearns, K. (2014). The business of child care (3rd ed.). Cengage Learning Australia.

Two Authors with the same family name

If a reference list includes publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname include first authors initials in all text citations, even if the year of publication is different.

In-text citation

Initials of the first author and second author (Year)

Among studies, we review M. A. Light and Light (2008) and I. Light (2006)

Reference list

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Light, I. (2006). Deflecting immigration: Networks, markets, and regulation in Los Angeles. Russell Sage Foundation.

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographical expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for the local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8, 73-82.

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