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Referencing (TAFE)

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A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available,include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.



Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journalvolume(issue), pages.

Pashkova-Balkenhol, Lenker, Cox & Kocevar-Weidinger. (2019). Should we flip the script?: A literature review of deficit-based perspectives on first-year undergraduate students’ information literacy. Journal of Information Literacy13(2), 92-111.


Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

If publication date is not available use no date or circa (about.approximately) c. before the year 
No date
 For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the   author.

 For example: 

 In-text citation

(Author, n.d.)
(Southey, n.d.)

 Reference List
 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. London, England: Blackie.
Approximate Date or estimated date
In text citation
( Author c. Year)
( Author Year?)
 Southey ( c. 1977)
(Southey 1977?)


In-text citation

(Creator, Year)

Creator (Year)

(Delacroix, 1826 – 1827)

(Wood, 1930)

Or Delacroix (1826 – 1827)

Wood (1930)


Reference list

Creator. (Year). Title [Type of artwork]. Repository, Repository location.

Creator. (Year). Title [Type of artwork]. Repository, Repository location. https//:xxxx

Delacroix, E. (1826 - 1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Wood, G. (1930). American Gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

  • Use this format to cite all types of museum artworks, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, and installations; always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.
  • For untitled artwork, include a description in square brackets in place of the title. 
Copyright and disclaimer