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Referencing (TAFE)

Introduction

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people should be aware that this guide may contain names of people who have since passed away.

The term Indigenous Australian is used in this page and refers to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Resources

References to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander authors or communities need to note, when the information is provided with the resource:

  • the Nation or Country and/or language group of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander author or community
  • where the Country is located.

If the author is not known we use Unrecorded in place of the author.

If the author is the same as the publisher, omit publisher information.

If the work is untitled we use Untitled in place of the title.

If the work is a collaboration between Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous authors, write the name of the Indigenous creator after their Country/Language information.

Book

Author, A. A. (Year). Title. Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country. Publisher.

Author, individual or community, from the same place

In-text

...consider the term health is an English language term (Nganampa Health Council, 1991)

Reference list

Nganampa Health Council. (1991). Anangu way. Anangu Pitjantjatjara, north-western South Australia. 

 

If there are multiple Indigenous Australian authors from different places, write the name of the author after their Country/Language information.

In-text

...a way of understanding cultural greetings can be seen in Murphy and Kennedy (2016).

Reference list

Murphy, J. & Kennedy, L. (2016). Welcome to country. Wurundjeri, Melbourne, VIC (Murphy), Trawlwoolway, Tasmania (Kennedy). Blackdog Books.

 

If the work is a collaboration between Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous authors, write the name of the Indigenous Australian creator after their Country/Language information.

eBook

Author, A. A. (Year). Title. Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country. Publisher.

Behrendt, L. (2012). Indigenous Australia for dummies. Eualeyai, Kamillaroi, north-western New South Wales. Wiley.

 

Web page

Author, A. A. (Year). Title. Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country. http:xxxx.

Yugambeh Museum. (2019). Language resources. Yugambeh, south east Queensland. 

              https://www.yugambeh.com/language-resources

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Materials

References to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artworks, designs, objects, or images need to note when the information is included with the material:

  • the Nation or Country and/or language group of the Indigenous creator or community
  • where the Country is located.

If the author is not known we use Unrecorded in place of the author.

If the work is untitled we use Untitled in place of the title.

This page includes examples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander materials that are viewed online and in person.

Viewed online

Creator, A. A. (Year). Title [Type of artwork]. Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country. Retrieved Month 

           Day, Year, from http:xxx.xx

Viewed in person

Creator, A. A. (Year). Title [Type of artwork]. Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country. Location:

           Repository.

In-text

...as portrayed in Gabori’s work (2005).

Reference list

Gabori, M. (2005). My country [Painting]. Kaiadilt, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, Queensland Art Gallery. Retrieved March 19, 2019, from http://collection.qagoma.qld.gov.au/qag/imu.php?request=display&port=45000&id=b231&flag=ecatalogue&offset=4&count=default&view=details

 

 If the image is untitled, use the word Untitled in place of a title.

In-text

In 2018, Napangati...

Reference list

Napangati, Y. (2018). Untitled. Papunya Tula, Northern Territory, Australia, Art Gallery of NSW. Retrieved March

19, 2019, from https://www.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/prizes/wynne/2018/30021/.

 

If the creator is not known we use Unrecorded in place of the creator. The date in this example means the work was created over those two years. If there is no date we write “n.d”. If the year is only known approximately we write “c” in front of the year or use a range of years.

In-text

...meaning and knowledge (Unrecorded 1912-13).

Reference list

Unrecorded. (1912-13). Ancestor and snake [Painting]. Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia, Google Cultural 

           Institute. Retrieved March 19, 2019, from https://artsandculture.google.com/asset/ancestor-and-

           snake/uwHcQPaRPH7dxw

 

If there are multiple Indigenous Australian creators from the same place, write their names after the Country/Language information.

In-text

George and Cooper (2018) ...

Reference list

George, W., & Cooper, T. (2018). Piltati and Malara: A story of love and war. APY Lands (George & Cooper), South Australia, Hazelhurst Gallery. Retrieved March 19, 2019, from https://www.sutherlandshire.nsw.gov.au/Community/Hazelhurst/Exhibitions/Weapons-For-The-Soldier

 

If there are multiple Indigenous Australian creators from different places, write the name of the creator after their Country/Language information.

In-text

(Timbrey & Jones, 2015)

Reference list

Timbrey, E., & Jones, J. (2015). Shell Wall. Bidjigal/Eora (Timbrey), La Perouse, NSW, Australia, Wiradjuri/Kamilaroi (Jones),

            NSW, Australia, Barangaroo Delivery Authority. Retrieved March 19, 2019, from https://www.barangaroo.com/the-

            project/arts-and-public-program/shell-wall-2015-by-esme-timbery-and-jonathan-jones/.

 

If the work is a collaboration between Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous creators, write the name of the Indigenous creator after their Country/Language information.

In-text

(Jagamara & Tillers, 2017)

Reference list

Jagamara, M. N., & Tillers, I. (2017). Metafisica Australe 2017 [Painting]. Warlpiri/Luritja (Jagamara), Papunya region,

             Northern Territory, Queensland Art Gallery of Modern Art (QAGOMA). Retrieved March 19, 2019, from

             https://blog.qagoma.qld.gov.au/michael-nelson-jagamara-imants-tillers-metafisica-australe/

 

If the work has been photographed and you know the name of the photographer, list the photographer before the publisher.

In-text

… demonstrated in the photographs of the location (Unrecorded, n.d.).

Reference list

Unrecorded. (n.d.). Baiame cave [Rock art]. Wonnarua people, Hunter Valley, NSW, photographed by R. Downie, Flickr.

            Retrieved March 19, 2019, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/robertdownie/23277332960/

Viewed in person:

If the work was viewed in person (i.e. viewed by you) use the following format:

Creator, A. A. (Year). Title [Type of work]. Nation or Country, Language group, Place of Nation or Country. Museum/Gallery/Site, Location of Museum/Gallery/Site.

 

If the work was viewed in person in a museum or gallery by a single Indigenous creator.

In-text

(Carmichael, 2017)

Reference list

Carmichael, S. (2017). Deranji Dabayil (rocky place, healing waters): Baskets of culture 2017 [Commercial raffia and ghost

            net strands]. Ngugi people of Quandamooka, Minjerribah, North Stradbroke Island. Queensland

            Gallery of Art, Brisbane, QLD. 

 

If the work is a collaboration between Indigenous Australian and non-Indigenous creators, write the name of the Indigenous creator after their Country/Language information.

Broadhust, H., & Watson, J. (1996). Untitled [public sculpture, goanna]. Waanyi, North Queensland (Watson). 

            Boundary St, West End, Brisbane, QLD. 

 

If the work was viewed in situ, in this example the use of a forward slash in the year indicates a work was begun at an earlier date and added to later.

In-text

Unrecorded. (1860/1940)

Reference list

Unrecorded. (1860/1940). Solid white female figure [Rock painting]. Maung language group, Wellington Range, Arnhem

            Land, Northern Territory, Djulirri, Western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory.

References

Adapted from the University of Technology Sydney library guide to referencing Indigenous material by Danièle Hromek & Sophie Herbert licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). 

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