Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Referencing (TAFE)

Digital Object Identifier

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a combination of letters and numbers string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

It is recommended that when DOIs are available,include them for both print and electronic sources. The DOI is usually located on the first page of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice. The DOI can also be found on the database landing page for the article.

Common Notations

Non-routine information in titles

Non-routine information is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information. Capitalize the first letter of the notation. Brackets indicate a description of form, not a title.

[Letter to the editor]

[Special issue]

[Special section]



[Audio podcast]

[Data file]


[Motion picture]

[Lecture notes]


[Computer software]

[Video Webcast]

[Supplement material] 

(APA, 2010, p. 186)

Reference List

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author

Names with Titles in Them

Professional titles are also omitted from reference list entries and in-text citations. Here are some common examples of academic credentials and professional titles to omit from references and citations (note this is not an exhaustive list—anything in a similar vein will count):

Academic degrees or 
licenses to omit

Professional titles to omit

PhD, PsyD, EdD (any doctorate degree)

Reverend (Rev.)

MA, MS (any master’s degree)

Honorable (Hon.)

MD, RN, BSN (any medical degree or license)

President (or any governmental or administrative rank)

MBA (any business degree)

Dr. or Doctor

JD (any law degree)

Military ranks (General, Captain, Lieutenant, etc.)

MSW, LCSW, LPC (any social work or counseling degree or license)          


BA, BS (any bachelor’s degree)


Exceptions for Religious Officials and Nobility


In text Referencing 

(Pope Francis, 2013)

Reference List

Pope Francis. (2013). Lumen fidei [The light of faith] [Encyclical letter].                                                                             

 In text Referencing

(The Prince of Wales, 2010)

Reference List

The Prince of Wales (with Juniper, T., & Skelly, I). (2010). Harmony: A new way of looking at our world. HarperCollins.                              


Lee, C. (2017 , May 31). What's in the name? Names with titles in them. APA Style Blog

© Copyright - TAFE Queensland 2021