APA is an "author-date" style. All information used in your work either as a direct quote, paraphrase or summary, obtained from another author or source needs to be correctly referenced in APA style.
The in-text citationbriefly tells the reader where the reference comes from using the author and date within the text of the document.
The reference listplaced alphabetically at the end of the essay, provides the reader with the full details of all sources cited in-text.
All in-text citations must have a corresponding reference list entry, similarly all reference list entries should have a corresponding in-text citations.
The rules of APA style are detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th edition. The APA style was first developed in 1929 by a group of social scientists. Since then it has been adapted by many disciplines and is used by writers around the world.
This guide is based on more detailed information in:
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).
American Psychological Association. (2010). Concise rules of APA style (6th ed.).
APA Styleis a new online resource designed to assist in the application of APA style formatting rules.
Cite Them Right by Richard Pears; Graham Shields
Publication Date: 2010-08-15
Covering all information sources used by students, this guide provides detailed examples of new media, such as the Internet, text messages and virtual learning environments and a comprehensive range of printed sources.
The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism by Colin Neville
Publication Date: 2010-02-01
Why is accurate referencing important? How do I reference sources correctly? What must I do to avoid plagiarism in my written work? How can I use referencing to assert my own ideas? This excellent new edition of The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism continues to demystify the referencing process and provide essential guidance to make sure you are not committing plagiarism. It provides clear guidelines on why and when to reference as well as how to correctly cite from a huge range of sources. Tackling all the main forms of referencing - Harvard, APA, MLA and Numerical referencing styles - in an accessible and comprehensive manner, you'll want to dip into this book time and again. A unique feature of the book is the comparisons it makes between different referencing styles, which are shown side-by-side. This provides a useful guide, particularly for students on combined studies courses who may be expected to use two, and sometimes three, different referencing styles. This new edition offers: A detailed guide to referencing electronic sources and choosing reliable internet sites Additional 'frequently asked questions' and answers Research findings of student perceptions of referencing Cases of referencing in practice by real students Examples of referencing in action Exercises and quizzes to test your knowledge Advice on the use of referencing management software The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism is essential reading for all students and professionals who need to use referencing in academic writing to reflect their own ideas, constructively apply the work of others, and to avoid plagiarism.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by American Psychological Association
Publication Date: 2019-10-01
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition is the official source for APA Style. With millions of copies sold worldwide in multiple languages, it is the style manual of choice for writers, researchers, editors, students, and educators in the social and behavioral sciences, natural sciences, nursing, communications, education, business, engineering, and other fields. Known for its authoritative, easy-to-use reference and citation system, the Publication Manual also offers guidance on choosing the headings, tables, figures, language, and tone that will result in powerful, concise, and elegant scholarly communication. It guides users through the scholarly writing process--from the ethics of authorship to reporting research through publication. The seventh edition is an indispensable resource for students and professionals to achieve excellence in writing and make an impact with their work. The seventh edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect best practices in scholarly writing and publishing. All formats are in full color, with a new tabbed spiral version Improved ease of navigation, with many additional numbered sections to help users quickly locate answers to their questions Resources for students on writing and formatting annotated bibliographies, response papers, and other paper types as well as guidelines on citing course materials Dedicated chapter for new users of APA Style covering paper elements and format, including sample papers for both professional authors and student writers New chapter on journal article reporting standards that includes updates to reporting standards for quantitative research and the first-ever qualitative and mixed methods reporting standards in APA Style New chapter on bias-free language guidelines for writing about people with respect and inclusivity in areas including age, disability, gender, participation in research, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality More than 100 new reference examples covering periodicals, books, audiovisual media, social media, webpages and websites, and legal resources More than 40 new sample tables and figures Expanded guidance on ethical writing and publishing practices, including how to ensure the appropriate level of citation, avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism, and navigate the publication process Guidelines that support accessibility for all users, including simplified reference, in-text citation, and heading formats as well as additional font options
This is used in in-text citations when there are 3 or more authors.
NOTE: full stop only after 'al.', not after 'et'.
Use the first author's surname in the first in-text citation, followed by et al. e.g. (Alberto et al., 1993).
Follow this format in subsequent citations.
End-text reference - all authors must be included.
For sources that do not have a date of publication, substitute ‘n.d.’ (no date) after the name of the author.
Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. Blackie.
no page numbers
Mathews' use of ... (2010, n. p.).
NOTE: Instructions for electronic sources without page numbers
If page numbers are not given use approximate page number (p. 3 of 9); or paragraph number for short text (para. 2); or the heading given in the source for the particular section. For example:
The ABS (2004, p. 1 of 4) defines residents as 'economic entities (persons, organizations or enterprises) which have a closer association with the territory of Australia than with any other territory'.
Flitton (2012, para. 1) reports 'Australia is about to confront the biting reality of US military decline'.
Use in your end-text referencing when the resource incorporates a number that represents the
accession, order, catalogue, or other number
Australian National Accounts: National income, expenditure and product (Cat. No. 5206.0).
Dissertation Abstracts International (University Microfilms No. 82-06, 181).
p. or pp.
These are included in the in-text citation. If one page number is being referred to, use the abbreviation p. for page. If referring to multiple pages use pp. to represent pages.
According to Gibbs (2009, pp. 34-35)
(Ezzy, 2002, p. 30)
para. or paras.
For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number and, if available, preceded by the abbreviation ‘para.’
(Clarkson, 2001, para. 2)
Used in end-text referencing when item is identified as being a revised edition.
Referencing guide (14th Rev. ed.).
Name the translator or editor only in the end-text reference, immediately following the title. In the case of translated works, cite the title in its translated form, not in its original form.
(Genet, 1966, p. 61)
Genet, J. (1966). The balcony (2nd ed.). (B. Frechtman, Trans.). Faber.
Vol. or Vols.
Include in end text referencing if books include volume information
Robinson, A. (1994). The principals of genetics and heredity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 19, pp. 699-740). Encyclopedia Britannica.
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).